Plain Talk 4: Treaties


Get the Book:

In the Classroom:


Borrows, John. “Canada’s Indigenous Constitution.” Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.

Borrows, John “Wampum at Niagara: The Royal Proclamation, Canadian Legal History, and Self-Government,” in Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada, ed. Michael Asch. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1997, 155.

Canada in the Making: Aboriginals: Treaties & Relations:

Canada. Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples. (May 2008). Honouring the Spirit of Modern Treaties: Closing the Loopholes, Special Study on the implementation of comprehensive land claims in Canada, Interim Report.

First Nations in Canada:

First Nations Treaties in Canada:

Kinikinik: A Treaty Play by Ian Ross, Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba: 2010.

Prince Albert Grand Council. eCulture:

The Manitoba Treaty Education Initiative Tool Kit, developed by the Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba (TRCM).

The Saskatchewan Treaty Kit K-12, developed by the Office of the Treaty Commissioner.

Treaties & Cultural Change:

Treaties with Aboriginal People in Canada:

Image Sources

  • pg.2
    • Sun Dance Ceremony of the Blackfeet Indians, Gleichen, NWT. ​Photographer Richard Henry Trueman [ca. 1893] Canadian National Archives.
  • pg.3
    • The Hiawatha Wampum Belt, ​or Dish with One Spoon. ​Wabano House, Ottawa. [ca. 2017]
  • pg.5
    • The Hiawatha Wampum. ​Photographer Mark D. Read [ca. 2018]
  • pg.6
    • A view of the ruins of the fort at Cataraqui ​taken in June, 1783. ​Artist and surveyor, James Peachy​Kingston Picture Collection/Queen’s University Archives
  • pg.8
    • Chiefs Signatures on the Treaty with the Chippewa, October 4, 1842.​Photographer Mark D. Read, [ca. 2018]​Queen’s University Archives
  • pg.9
    • Preparing the feast to be held after the James Bay Treaty signing ceremony, Osnaburgh House Photographer unknown [July 12, 1905]​Duncan Campbell Scott fonds/Archives of Ontario
  • pg.10
    • Women and children [of Brunswick House First Nation] at the feast during Treaty 9 payment ceremony at [the Hudson’s Bay Company Post called] New Brunswick House, Ontario. Photographer Duncan Campbell Scott ​[ca. July 25, 1906]​Library and Archives Canada
  • pg.10
    • Map No. 20a. Ontario: Department of Surveys ​J. L. Morris fonds [1931]​Archives of Ontario
  • pg.14
    • British Columbian Siwashes. Lilloett, ​[Lillooett] B.C. ​Frederick Dally Fonds [ca. 1866-1870]​Royal British Columbia Museum Archives
  • pg.18
    • James Bay Treaty (Treaty No. 9) [pages 1-7]​Archives of Ontario
  • pg.19
  • pg.21
    • Kinikinik, A Treaty Play by Ian Ross.​Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba ​[ca. 2010]
  • pg.23
  • pg.24
    • Crown-First Nations Gathering, with the late Elder Bertha Commonda smudging Prime Minister Harper along with National Chief Shawn Atleo and Governor General David Johnston.​Photographer Fred Carroll [ca. January 24, 2012]
  • pg.25
    • No.4, Cree Chief Poundmaker (1842?-1886), ​after his arrest in June 1885, Regina, Saskatchewan. Library and Archives Canada
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