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  • Colonialism

    The process of one power exercising control over lands, peoples, and resources; colonization.

  • Culturally Relevant Electives

    Courses/classes that are grounded in local culture. Examples include: Indigenous arts such as beading, local languages, Indigenous agriculture, hunting and trapping, and other on the land activities, etc.


  • Elders

    Community members who have the respect of the people because of their wisdom and knowledge of traditional customs, language and culture, regardless of age or gender.


  • First Nations Control of First Nations Education

    An Assembly of First Nations policy document that builds on the 1972 Indian Control of Indian Education policy document. It was endorsed by Assembly of First Nations Chiefs in 2010.

  • First Nations Holistic Lifelong Learning Model

    A way of learning and perceiving the world.  It takes into consideration how Indigenous and Western viewpoints, and formal and informal learning impact our holistic being. The model demonstrates how throughout various life stages different sources and domains of knowledge are expressed in the social, spiritual and cultural, political and economic aspects of our lives. The model also highlights the role of nurturing guides that help shape our lives.

  • Free, Prior, and Informed Consent (FPIC)

    As outlined in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People (UNDRIP), is a standard for governments and industry to follow when working with First Nations on projects that will impact their communities.


  • Honour of the Crown

    The Crown’s (England) duty to act honourably in its dealings with First Nations.  Canada (the federal government) as a representative of the Crown (the original signatory to treaties with First Nations), takes on this responsibility.


  • Indian Control of Indian Education

    A 1972 policy paper calling on the Government of Canada to provide educational and financial resources to support First Nations learners through locally-controlled education systems.

  • Indigenous Institutes of Higher Learning (IIHL)

    Indigenous-controlled post-secondary, technical, and adult education institutions. There are over 50 IIHL’s in Canada, including First Nations University of Canada, First Nations Technical Institute, Six Nations Polytechnic, Maskwacis Cultural College, Yellowquill College, and many others.

  • Indigenous Knowledge

    Knowledge rooted in the land, language, and culture of Indigenous groups. Indigenous Knowledge has been passed down through generations through teachings, storytelling, and ceremonies.


  • Jurisdiction

    The power to make decisions; in the case of First Nations control of First Nations education, it is the power to make decisions pertaining to First Nations education.


  • Linguistically and culturally appropriate holistic learning environments

    Places of learning, both formal and informal, indoor and outdoor, that are grounded in local culture and language, centered within Indigenous knowledge and ways of being, and respond to the needs of the community.


  • Reserves

    Pockets of land that have been set aside for the use and benefit of Indians (First Nations), within the meaning of the Indian Act. The federal government has jurisdiction of these lands and the First Nations living on them.

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